Researchers are developing new ways to gauge volatility far beyond financial markets.
Countries with higher inequality, more financial development, and higher current account deficits are more prone to populism.
"Pseudo firms" reveal that the primary element driving corporate credit spreads is a premium for tail and idiosyncratic asset risks.
The reason has to do with timing, economic cycles, and voters’ tolerance for risk.
Market performance under Republican presidents may be in part due to timing.